The remains of the Rocca Paolina, commissioned by Pope Paul III from Antonio da Sangallo (1540) tower from a high rampart. Exceptional architectural planning incorporated an entire district within it: an entire fragment of the Middle Ages unfurls in the heart of the town which the Pope assigned to eternal darkness, but which today is one of the crucial points of a flourishing Perugia. Most of the city’s artistic heritage pours out into and around Piazza Grande (Piazza IV Novembre): in the middle lies the Fontana Maggiore with its thirteenth century bas-reliefs by Nicola and Giovanni Pisano, then access to the fourteenth and fifteenth century setting of the Museo Capitolare is via the cloister of the Cathedral of St. Lorenzo (14th-15th century). Back in Piazza Grande we find Palazzo dei Priori (1298-1353), home to the National Gallery of Umbria, one of the most richly endowed museums in Italy. On the ground floor the Sale del Nobile Collegio del Cambio flaunt the grandiose wall decoration by il Perugino (1496-1500), whereas the nearby Nobile Collegio della Mercanzia contains a rare form of wall decoration made of wood. The origins of the imposing Palazzo della Penna are decidedly varied and are the incredible compendium of the eras that have succeeded each other, from the Etruscans to contemporary times. The museum houses works by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Antonio Canova and Joseph Beuys. The only legacy from Raffaello to the city must not be missed: the fresco with the Trinity (end of 15th-beginning of the 16th century) in the chapel next to the church of St. Severo.